Buttock augmentation may be achieved through Gluteoplasty which stands for plastic surgery and liposculpture procedure for correcting defects and deformities of the buttocks and for cosmetic enhancement of the buttock contour.
The corrective procedures for buttock augmentation and repair include surgical emplacement of buttock prosthesis, liposculpture involving liposuction and lipoinjection and body contouring involving plastic surgery (subcutaneous dermal-fat flaps) and liposculpture.
i) Gluteal Implants- The implants are emplaced under each gluteus maximus muscle by inserting buttock prosthesis through a 5 to 8 cm incision over the tail bone. The implant route for buttock augmentation is best suited for people who do not have significant pockets of excess fat in lower part of the trunk and the thighs. The procedure may be performed under local or general anaesthesia and takes around two hours, and may be managed under overnight in-patient treatment or under outpatient treatment. Since the incision is to the gluteus maximus muscles, the management of post-surgical pain and tissue healing take about 4 to 6 weeks time after which the patient may resume normal activities. The full healing however takes about 6 to 8 months during which the gluteal muscle tissues relax and the prostheses are integrated to the gluteal area.
The problems with gluteal implants include a relatively high risk of infection and the implants can change their position, and either go to the side or end up in the lower part of the buttocks. Two undesireable conditions that has lead to increase popularity of fat transfer to the buttocks.
ii) Lioposculpture – Liposculpture requires application of liposuction under gentle condition to harvest the adipose-fat tissue with minimum disturbance to the fat and local tissues particularly “the connective tissue layer between the skin and the immediate subcutaneous muscle tissues.“ The sites of harvesting the autologus fat are abdomen, flanks and thighs of the patients. The harvested fat after some treatment is injected (lipoinjection) to the target area in the body in gluteal region using a fine gauge cannula and a tiny incision resulting in a short and narrow scar. This fat transfer and augmentation procedure using the patient’s own body fat reduces the chance of tissue rejection. The procedure is also less invasive than buttocks implant surgery. In most cases, depending on the health, the patient may be able to resume most of normal activities after 2days of the procedure and may be able to take up all activities after two weeks of the procedure.
Another name for this type of surgery is the Brazilian Butt Lift because the procedure was popularized in Brazil and has been one of the favorite procedures of women to give them a sensual and sexy curve to their body.
In addition, the liposuction of excess fat needed to harvest the fat from the abdomen, flanks and thighs improves the appearance of these body parts aesthetically too. Unfortunately, some of the injected fat gets broken down and eliminated and as a result, the volume and contour initially attained by fat injection in the buttocks get diminished. Depending on the degree of such reduction, the patient might require additional fat transfer to achieve the optimum size, shape and contour of the buttocks.
iii) Body Contouring-Augmentation of buttocks may also be attained by combining gluteoplasty procedure of surgery (subcutaneous dermal-fat flaps) and liposculpture (fat-suction, fat injection). This treatment approach is suitable for patients who have undergone massive weight loss through bariatric surgery and for persons having under projected flat buttocks and gluteal -muscle ptosis. The gluteal implant surgery or liposculpture in these cases would not be adequate to provide the suitable anatomic contour of the gluteal region.
2.0 Recovery- For the buttock augmentation and contouring with implants(prostheses), though the immediate results would be seen soon after the surgery, the final results are observed at 6 months after and 1 year after the procedure. For liposculpture procedures, 6 months and sometimes 1 year wait may be required to witness the final, corrected body contour. For both the procedures together, considerable cosmetic improvement is noticeable in the pertinent areas after about 1month after the procedures. The temporary weight gain due to retention of anaesthetic and tumescent fluids would also be lost around 1 month post procedures.
The patient should wear compression garment for quick and better healing. To allow shrinking of the skin to the corrected body contour, to avoid unevenness and wrinkles in the skin and localised swelling, the patient may take up massaging and ultrasound treatments if needed.
3.0 Complications- Like any other surgical procedure there could be some complications in these procedures also – toxic reactions to anaesthetic and tumescent drugs , infection, poor wound healing, seroma, asymmetry of the treated area and others. To minimize the chances of complications, close consultation with the surgeon and following up fully on his instructions would be advisable.